also because in my psychiatric practice I keep hearing from people who lie awake nights wondering if they. There would have to be something equivalent to 'group gametes' or 'group propagules and all the genes in the group would have to share the same expectation of leaving the present group via the same propagule. But the dichotomy ignores another possibility: that an individual can be virtuous by benefiting other individuals (in principle, all humans, or even all sentient creatures whether or not he enhances the competitive prowess of the group to which he belongs. At the same time, the theory is mathematically equivalent to standard evolutionary theories based on gene selection or inclusive fitness, so the two theories make identical predictions and can never be empirically distinguished. Like everything in biology it will be messy and squishy. In the real world, success in group-against-group competition is not primarily determined by differences in within-group empathy and kindness but by differences in ideology, technology, military strategy, and organization coerced by brutal discipline, none of which need be costly to the individuals who implement them. If they perceive that they are themselves being free-ridden, they attempt to curtail their own exploitation; for instance, they simply stop cooperating, or they experience punitive sentiment towards free riders in proportion to their own individual vulnerability to being free ridden. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA In press. The challenge is to become bilingual and to identify the important issues that can now be addressed within either framework. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 23:149-156. (Remember Haidt and.
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Many rounds of gene-culture coevolution would have eventually built living humans who, given the right norms and institutions, are capable of considerable feats of cooperation. At first sight, utilitarianism is the winner: morality is all about helping others and being generous, right? 50 In another study, Harris and colleagues examined the neural basis of religious and non-religious belief using fMRI. Let us try to teach generosity and altruism, because we are born selfish." But why do fundamentally selfish beings, which is what humans are according to the selfish gene theory, accept cultural norms that contradict their natural strivings? And I had suggested that there is no such thing.