states that the State shall, by suitable legislation, secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. But the success has been inadequate due to lack of efforts towards the implementation of such laws as well as due to lack of social consciousness and efforts towards the integration of these measures in the social fabric. The one is political, since it is a question of mere law and order, the other is socio-political. Socialistic, gandhian and, liberal-intellectual. After the March 1977 general election ended the control of the Congress (Congress (R) from 1969) over the executive and legislature for the first time since independence in 1947, the new Janata-dominated Parliament passed the Forty-third Amendment (1977) and Forty-fourth Amendment (1978).
Markandan, If the chapter of Fundamental Rights is essential for the democratic state of written constitution, the chapter of Directive Principles of State Policy is essential for the welfare state of written constitution. According to Articles 43A, which has been added by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment, the State will endeavor, either by appropriate legislation or by certain other methods that the workers and laborers participate in the management of business connected with industries or other institutions. Although a number of measures have been adopted in order to implement the various Directive Principles of State Policy but still much needs to be done. In order to give practical shape to the Directive Principles of State Policy, the government started a series of Five Year Plans. Health and accident benefits have been granted to the workers. Part IV of the constitution does not form an operative part of the constitution.